Sew forward… then sew a couple of stitches backwards (this is your backstitch). You should backstitch at the beginning and end of a machine sewn seam to anchor the seam in place.
Set your machine to a zig-zag stitch… and set your stitch length to 0. Now sew back and forth several times… this is a bar tack. A bar tack is used to tack a belt loop or similar item in place, and is often used in buttonhole making. You also use this method for sewing on roman shade rings.
Batting is a soft flat material that you use to layer between 2 pieces of fabric… for projects that you plan on quilting. If an item feels puffy and soft, it likely has batting inside of it.
When you cut your fabric at a 45 degree angle to the selvage edge (straight grain) you are cutting on the bias. The bias is the stretchiest part on the fabric.
Strips of fabric cut on the bias, often turned under and pressed, and used for bindings, facings, or other projects where there is a need for stretch or accomodation to curves.
Used to neaten the edge of a buttonhole, blanket, vest edge, or other seamline. A blanket stitch can be done by hand or machine.